Stambridge is mentioned in the Domesday Book. The flour mills in Stambridge are descended from an industry which was flourishing during the time the Domesday Book was written. The octagonal font in St. Mary's Church, Stambridge, has been in use for over 500 years. On the west wall is a plaque dedicated to John Winthrop, and a church window commemorates him sailing to America where he became the first Governor of Massachusetts.

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A notable Stambridge resident was John Harriot, who founded the Thames Police Force in the 18th century, some considerable time before Sir Robert Peel instituted the present day constabulary.